Bruce Kogut is the Sanford C. Bernstein & Co. Professor at Columbia Business School, Columbia University and previously held chairs at the Wharton School and INSEAD. Bruce Kogut has degrees from the University of California, Berkeley; Columbia University, and MIT, and was awarded an honorary doctorate from the Stockholm School of Economics. He was an early contributor to the domain of global strategy, to which he contributed formally and empirically the idea that multinational firm networks provide valuable real options on the higher volatility arising from cross-border investments. His articles on joint ventures, culture and direct investment, and knowledge were recognized by journal prizes, including one from the Strategic Management Journal. He is currently working on governance and global networks, as well as public economic policies and ideologies. Pedagogically, he led the emerging markets program at Wharton and founded the social entrepreneurship program at INSEAD.